name: Garcinia mangostana]
Mangosteen in an exotic fruit with a deep purple color. It has a
sweet-sour taste fleshy seeds which we enjoy eating (please donít swallow
the seeds). Malic acid accounts for the sour taste of the fruit. It is known
to alleviate gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea and stomatitis or
mouth ulcers. While we throw away the hard rind of the fruit, it is that
part where most of the medicinal properties of fruit are contained. Foremost
of the medicinal properties of mangosteen, which is in the rind, is the
xanthones. These are polyphenolic phytochemical compounds which¬ have
extensive pharmacologic properties¬ beneficial to the heart and blood
vessels. These include ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of
the arteries due to cholesterol), hypertension and thrombosis or blockade of
the arteries. Xanthones and its derivatives are antioxidants,
anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, relax the blood vessels and inhibit
platelet aggregation (this helps in preventing a blood vessel blockage).
Because of the antioxidant properties of xanthones it is beneficial in the
prevention of tumors or cancer. It also helps in promoting apoptosis or cell
ďísuicideĒ which checks the development of cancer. The rind was also
reported to have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.
The anti-bacterial properties have been tested on micro-organisms against
acne. It was also reported that extracts of the rind inhibits prostaglandins
and IgE, indicating that the material can be used as analgesic for
dysmennorhea and arthritis and has an antihistaminic or anti-allergic
properties. With these properties, rind decoctions can be useful for face
wash to control acne. Mangosteen capsules are available commercially.
Some have tried to add pericarp (husk) to fruit juices to add more
xanthones and body (thickening)¬ to the drink. If you will try to do
this just pick on the softer part of the rind. You may want to shred it and
add to a fruit juice and finally blend.¬ So next time you eat
mangosteen keep the rind (in the refrigerator for a week only) for a fruit
Posted by Doc Emil @ 10:54 am
Mangosteen Treatment For Cancer
How It Works
Various studies have shown that phytoceuticals in Mangosteen (in
some cases known to be its xanthones) have properties such as:
anti-tumor (shrinks tumors), anti-leukemia, antifungal (critical for
all cancer patients), antibacterial (to protect DNA), antioxidants (at
least two dozen different kinds of xanthones are in the mangosteen
fruit), antiproliferation, kills cancer cells and causes apoptosis
(programmed cell death) for some types of cancer. This is a pretty
impressive list of cancer credentials!
In keeping with the superb anti-cancer properties of many kinds of
fruits, especially grapes and berries, mangosteen can be added to this
The mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) is grown in
Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, India and several other countries. Most
of the scientific research on this fruit involves about a half dozen
of the two dozen known xanthones in this fruit. Most of the xanthones
in Mangosteen have yet to be researched. Mangosteen has a wide range
of benefits, perhaps most result from its xanthone phytoceuticals/antioxidants.
However, mangosteen also contains: catechins, polyphenols, minerals
As an antioxidant, mangosteen is very high among plants:
- "A new laboratory test known as ORAC (Oxygen Radical
Absorbance Capacity) has also shown that an ounce of mangosteen
juice has 20 to 30 times the ability to absorb free radicals than
one ounce of most fruits and vegetables. The ORAC test is one of
the most accurate ways to measure the ability of antioxidants in a
certain substance to absorb free radicals. The higher the ORAC
score, the better the food is for the body."
Site is Down
Here are some of the xanthones in mangosteen:
In terms of direct studies on cancer, the following quote is
related to cancer:
- "We found that antiproliferative effect of CME [crude
methanolic extract] was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer
cell line by determinations of morphological changes and
oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. In addition, CME at various
concentrations and incubation times were also found to inhibit ROS
production. These investigations suggested that the methanolic
extract from the pericarp [skin] of Garcinia mangostana had strong
antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of
apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that this substance can show
different activities and has potential for cancer chemoprevention
which were dose dependent as well as exposure time
"Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis
by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer
cell line," by Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S,
Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N.
Heres is another study:
- "Our results have shown that one of the xanthone
derivatives which could be identified as garcinone E has potent
cytotoxic effect on all HCC cell lines as well as on other gastric
and lung cancer cell lines included in the screen. We suggest that
garcinone E may be potentially useful for the treatment of certain
types of cancer."
"Garcinone E, a Xanthone Derivative, has Potent Cytotoxic
Effect Against Hepatocellular Carcinome Cell Lines" by Chi-Kuan
Ho, Yu-Ling Huang and Chieh-Chih Chen
Some of the more impressive research on mangosteen involve
- "We examined the effects of six xanthones from the
pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, on the cell growth
inhibition of human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones
displayed growth inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin
showed complete inhibition at 10 microM through the induction of
"Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human
leukemia cell lines," by Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E,
Ohguchi K, Ito T, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y.
More mangosteen scientific studies can be found at:
One of the nice things about mangosteen is not only that it tastes
good, but is also anti-diarrheal, meaning you are not likely to get
diarrhea from drinking too much Mangosteen.
Here is how to get toally unbiased information about Mangosteen
(from Dr. Duke):
This is the world famous Dr. Duke's Agricultural Research Service:
1) Click on this website: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/
2) Click on Chemicals and activities,
3) Select 'Common Name' then type in 'mangosteen' in the search box,
4) Select 'Print chemical activities after chemicals' then Submit
Query. Read all the way down the page.
Warning: Due to the fact that many cancer patients have liver
damage, frequently due to chemotherapy, and due to the fact that high
doses of this product may, in rare cases, contribute to liver damage;
doses of this product should not exceed 3 or 4 ounces a day. Those who
already have liver damage should avoid this product.
alternative cancer treatment should be a complete treatment protocol.
Do NOT forget to study the complete treatment protocol for
Stage I, II and III cancer patients and the complete treatment
protocol for Stage IV cancer patients:
For Stage I, II and III Cancer Patients
For Stage IV Cancer Patients
MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana)
One of the Super Healthy Exotic Fruits
The Mangosteen Fruit from Southwest Asia
The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana in Latin) plant is a
tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and
the Moluccas. It was first discovered in Burma and Siam (now known as
Thailand). The tree grows from 7 to 25 meters tall. This exotic edible
Mangosteen fruit is a deep reddish purple when ripe. In Asia, the Mangosteen
fruit is known as the "Queen of Fruits".
The Mangosteen tree requires a warm, very humid, equatorial climate all
year round. Many people have tried to grow Garcinia mangostana in warm
places such as California and Florida or in special greenhouses outside South
East Asia, but they experienced little success because of the different
environmental factors. The Mangosteen tree requires abundant moisture and only
grows well in a tropical environment.
The Mangosteen fruit grown in Thailand is harvested in the season of
optimum ripeness for maximum efficacy. The xanthone rich pericarp (the
outer rind) is then separated from the pulp and freeze-dried.
The outer shell or rind of the Mangosteen fruit (called the pericarp)
is rather hard, typically 4 to 6 centimeters in diameter, resembling a
spherical, reddish-black, cartoon-style bomb. By cutting through the shell,
one finds a very pale and fleshy fruit 3 to 5 centimeters in diameter.
Depending on its size and ripeness, there may or may not be pits in the
segments of the fruit. The number of fruit pods is directly related to the
number of petals on the bottom of the shell. Commonly, the average Mangosteen
will have 5 fruit pods.
The shell of the Mangosteen fruit looks tough and hard, but is easy to
open. Care must be taken when opening the fruit, as the reddish-black husk
outside produces a purplish, inky juice that stains fabric and can be almost
impossible to remove (the reason why they are banned from some hotels in
countries where they are available). To open a Mangosteen, the shell is
usually broken apart, not cut. Holding the fruit in both hands, press it
gently (thumbs on one side, the other fingers on the other) until the shell
cracks. It is then very easy to pull the halves apart along the crack and
remove the fruit without staining.
One of the most-praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most-esteemed
fruit in the family Guttiferae, the Mangosteen (Garcinia
mangostana in Latin) is almost universally known or heard of by this name.
But there are numerous variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking
people the fruit is called mangostan; to the French it is mangostanier,
mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese it is mangostao,
mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese it
is mang cut; in Malaya it may be referred to in any of these languages or by
the local terms mesetor, semetah, or sementah; and in the Philippines it is
mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago of Malaysia, there are
many different spellings of names for Mangosteen similar to most of those
Health Benefits of Mangosteen Fruit (Garcinia
Traditional Medicinal Uses:
For hundreds of years, the people of Southeast Asia have used the
Mangosteen, especially the rind (called the pericarp, to ward off
and treat infections, reduce pain or control fever, and treat various
Dried Mangosteen fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China
for medicinal use. The sliced and dried pericarp (rind) is powdered and
administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is
applied on eczema and other skin disorders.
The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea
and gleet, and is applied externally as an astringent lotion. A
portion of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion given as a
remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and children.
Filipinos employ a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge
and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders.
In Malaya an infusion of the Mangosteen leaves, combined with unripe banana
and a little benzoin, is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root
decoction is taken to regulate female menstruation. A bark extract
called amibiasine has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic
Modern Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits:
The latest in scientific research shows Mangosteen contains a class of
naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds known as xanthones.
Xanthones provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases,
including ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and
thrombosis. Xanthones demonstrate particularly powerful antioxidant
are found in a limited number of rain forest plants, but
nowhere are they found in greater abundance than in the rind of the Mangosteen
The medicinal properties of the Mangosteen fruit are derived mainly from
its outer rind or peel, not from the fleshy inner part of the fruit. The rind,
called the pericarp, is where powerful antioxidants are highly
concentrated. The Mangosteen pericarp is about a half-centimeter thick and is
green when unripe, then dark purple when ripe.
These unique antioxidants, known as Xanthones, have properties which
help to heal cells damaged by free radicals, slow aging, and ward off
degenerative diseases and physical and mental deterioration.
The rind of partially ripe Mangosteen fruit yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone
derivative termed mangostin, also beta-mangostin. That of fully
ripe fruits contains the xanthones gartanin, beta-disoxygartanin,
According to research reported in professional journals such as Free
Radical Research and the Journal of Pharmacology, these amazing Xanthones
have a remarkablly beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. They are also
naturally antibiotic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. Xanthones are
among the most powerful antioxidants to be found in nature.
Many of the other health benefits of Xanthones from Mangosteen
pericarp can be expressed in terms of how they act against or are
"anti" various serious ailments...
anti-fatigue, anti-obesity, anti-depression, anti-anxiety, anti-vertigo
(dizziness), anti-Alzheimerís, anti-Parkinsonism (Parkinson's Disease),
anti-allergenic, anti-seborrheic (skin disease), anti-glaucoma (eye disease),
anti-pyretic (anti-fever), anti-diarrhea, anti-periodontic (gum disease),
anti-pain (such as dental pain), anti-neuralgia (nerve pain), anti-arthritis,
anti-inflammatory (act as cox-2 inhibitors like the pharmaceutical drugs
Vioxx(tm) and Celebrex(tm), but without the deadly side-effects), and
anti-ulcer (such as ulcers of the stomach, mouth, small bowel, or large
Some of the Xanthones in the Mangosteen pericarp have powerful
anti-inflammatory properties which may be of interest to those who suffer
the pain of sciatica and peripheray neuropathy, which cannot be
effectively controlled by drug treatments. The amount of Mangosteen consumed
per day may need to be increased by two or three times to support pain relief
through its anti-inflammatory and cox-2 inhibitor effects.
Mangosteen fruit also shows vasorelaxant properties (causing
dilation of blood vessels and increased blood flow).
With Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Staphylococcus aureus
(Staph. A) bacteria, Mangosteen has shown inhibitory action against these
harmful bacteria organisms. In addition to its antibacterial
properties, Mangosteen fruit also demonstrates strong antifungal properties.
It is highly effective in boosting weak immune systems.
There are several compounds found in the Mangosteen that appear to make
this fruit so active as a nutritional component for the body.
Research and References
NOTES: In the following citations of research studies, the medical term apoptosis
refers to "cell death" after a cell has reproduced a certain number
of times, then dies naturally (here, it refers to the death of cancer cells). Induction
of apoptosis means "initiating apoptosis" of the cancer cells. HIV-1
refers to the AIDS virus. Low density lipoptrotein refers to "LDL
cholesterol", the "bad cholesterol" that can form plaque in the
arteries and increase the risk of heart disease or death by stroke or heart
Jiang, D.J. e. al. Pharmacological effects of xanthones as
cardiovascular protective agents. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 2004,
Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia
mangostana on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J. Ethnopharmacol, 2004
Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia
cell lines. J. Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;55(8):1124-7
Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia
mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J. Nat Prod 1997 May; 60
Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Mangosteen. Planta
Med 1996 Aug;62(4):381-2
Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density
lipoprotein. Free radical Research. 1995 Aug.:23(2):175-84
Anti-cancer effects of
xanthones from rinds (skins) of mangosteen.
Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a
tree found in South East Asia, and its rinds
(skins) have been used as traditional
medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown
that they contain a variety of secondary
metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated
Recent studies revealed that these xanthones
exhibited a variety of biological activities
containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial,
and anti-cancer effects. We previously
investigated the anti-proliferative effects of
four prenylated xanthones from the rinds
(skins); alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin,
gamma-mangostin, and methoxy-beta-mangostin in
various human cancer cells.
These xanthones are different in the number of
hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for
methoxy-beta-mangostin, the other three
xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at
low concentrations from 5 to 20 muM in human
colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study
focused on the mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced
growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown
that the anti-proliferative effects of the
xanthones were associated with cell-cycle
arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins,
cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by alpha-mangostin
and beta-Mangostin, and S arrest by gamma-mangostin.
alpha-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis
through the activation of intrinsic pathway
following the down-regulation of signaling
cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine
kinase These findings could provide a relevant
basis for the development of xanthones as an
agent for cancer prevention and the
combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs.
It is very important to note that all the tests on Mangosteen found
the most active Anti-cancer ingredient xanthone in the Rind or Skin.
Some resellers of Mangosteen Juice or powders may focus on the fruit
extract, which has a poorer concentration of xanthones. The addition
of refined sugar in many Mangosteen juices reverse the effectiveness
of xanthones on the cancer cells, as cancer thrives on refined sugar
products. (glucose dependency). If you choose this treatment, source
only the trusted suppliers of Mangosteen Supplements, or locate a
supplier of this fruit in a tropical / subtropical region or Country.
How to prepare Mangosteen Rind (Skin) at home.
Prepare Mangosteen, by removing all fruit, and keeping only the
rind/skin. These are very thick and are a dark red/ crimson color. Cut
the mangosteen rind into very thin slices (2mm thick). Use a
dehydrator or sun dry the skin. Store in airtight bottles.
Simmer a handful of Mangosteen Skins in 1 litre of water, do not boil.
Simmer for 20 minutes. Strain and refrigerate, or add green tea and
drink warm. Make fresh 'Mangosteen' tea in this manner and consume
twice a day for 60 days. Combine with a Bruess Juice Diet for an extra
powerful anticancer treatment
Study 1: 8/2003
Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia
cell lines. Journal of Natural Products. 2003 August;66(8):1124-7 The
study determined the anti-cancer activity of six xanthones extracted
from the rinds (skins) of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). The
in-vitro tests were carried out on human leukemia cells. The
researchers found that all tested xanthones inhibited the growth of
the cancer cells. The xanthone with the strongest inhibitory effect
Study 2: 1/2004
Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by
Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell
line. Journal of Ethnopharmacoly. 2004 January;90(1):161-6 The aim of
this study was to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and
antioxidative properties of a methanol extract of mangosteen (Garcinia
mangostana) rinds (skins). The in-vitro test was carried out on human
breast cancer cells, subject to different concentrations of the
mangosteen extract. The researchers found dose-dependent inhibition of
cancer cell proliferation. The extract also caused apoptosis on breast
cancer cells and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species.
The study concluded that the methanol extract from the rinds (skins)
of mangosteen has potential for cancer chemoprevention.
Study 3: 3/2006
Antioxidant xanthones from the rinds (skins) of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2077-82.
The aim of this study was to identify phytochemicals in mangosteen (Garcinia
mangostana) with anti-cancer activity. The researchers identified 14
xanthones, of which two were for the first time identified:
8-hydroxycudraxanthone G and mangostingone. The other xanthones were
cudraxanthone G, 8-deoxygartanin, garcimangosone B, garcinone D,
garcinone E, gartanin, 1-isomangostin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin,
mangostinone, smeathxanthone A and tovophyllin A. The phytochemicals
with the strongest antioxidant activity were 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G,
gartanin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin and smeathxanthone A.
Alpha-mangostin inhibited preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary
organ culture assay following treatment with a carcinogen.