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Mangosteen [Scientific name: Garcinia mangostana]

Mangosteen in an exotic fruit with a deep purple color. It has a sweet-sour taste fleshy seeds which we enjoy eating (please donít swallow the seeds). Malic acid accounts for the sour taste of the fruit. It is known to alleviate gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea and stomatitis or mouth ulcers. While we throw away the hard rind of the fruit, it is that part where most of the medicinal properties of fruit are contained. Foremost of the medicinal properties of mangosteen, which is in the rind, is the xanthones. These are polyphenolic phytochemical compounds which¬ have extensive pharmacologic properties¬ beneficial to the heart and blood vessels. These include ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries due to cholesterol), hypertension and thrombosis or blockade of the arteries. Xanthones and its derivatives are antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, relax the blood vessels and inhibit platelet aggregation (this helps in preventing a blood vessel blockage). Because of the antioxidant properties of xanthones it is beneficial in the prevention of tumors or cancer. It also helps in promoting apoptosis or cell ďísuicideĒ which checks the development of cancer. The rind was also reported to have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.

The anti-bacterial properties have been tested on micro-organisms against acne. It was also reported that extracts of the rind inhibits prostaglandins and IgE, indicating that the material can be used as analgesic for dysmennorhea and arthritis and has an antihistaminic or anti-allergic properties. With these properties, rind decoctions can be useful for face wash to control acne. Mangosteen capsules are available commercially.

Some have tried to add pericarp (husk) to fruit juices to add more xanthones and body (thickening)¬  to the drink. If you will try to do this just pick on the softer part of the rind. You may want to shred it and add to a fruit juice and finally blend.¬  So next time you eat mangosteen keep the rind (in the refrigerator for a week only) for a fruit juice additive.

Posted by Doc Emil @ 10:54 am


Mangosteen Treatment For Cancer



How It Works

Various studies have shown that phytoceuticals in Mangosteen (in some cases known to be its xanthones) have properties such as: anti-tumor (shrinks tumors), anti-leukemia, antifungal (critical for all cancer patients), antibacterial (to protect DNA), antioxidants (at least two dozen different kinds of xanthones are in the mangosteen fruit), antiproliferation, kills cancer cells and causes apoptosis (programmed cell death) for some types of cancer. This is a pretty impressive list of cancer credentials!


Mangosteen Treatment

In keeping with the superb anti-cancer properties of many kinds of fruits, especially grapes and berries, mangosteen can be added to this exclusive list.

The mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) is grown in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, India and several other countries. Most of the scientific research on this fruit involves about a half dozen of the two dozen known xanthones in this fruit. Most of the xanthones in Mangosteen have yet to be researched. Mangosteen has a wide range of benefits, perhaps most result from its xanthone phytoceuticals/antioxidants. However, mangosteen also contains: catechins, polyphenols, minerals and vitamins.

As an antioxidant, mangosteen is very high among plants:


  • "A new laboratory test known as ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) has also shown that an ounce of mangosteen juice has 20 to 30 times the ability to absorb free radicals than one ounce of most fruits and vegetables. The ORAC test is one of the most accurate ways to measure the ability of antioxidants in a certain substance to absorb free radicals. The higher the ORAC score, the better the food is for the body."
    Site is Down

Here are some of the xanthones in mangosteen:
Garcinone A
Garcinone B
Garcinone C
Garcinone D
Garcinone E

In terms of direct studies on cancer, the following quote is related to cancer:


  • "We found that antiproliferative effect of CME [crude methanolic extract] was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by determinations of morphological changes and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. In addition, CME at various concentrations and incubation times were also found to inhibit ROS production. These investigations suggested that the methanolic extract from the pericarp [skin] of Garcinia mangostana had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that this substance can show different activities and has potential for cancer chemoprevention which were dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent."
    "Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line," by Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S, Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N.

Heres is another study:


  • "Our results have shown that one of the xanthone derivatives which could be identified as garcinone E has potent cytotoxic effect on all HCC cell lines as well as on other gastric and lung cancer cell lines included in the screen. We suggest that garcinone E may be potentially useful for the treatment of certain types of cancer."
    "Garcinone E, a Xanthone Derivative, has Potent Cytotoxic Effect Against Hepatocellular Carcinome Cell Lines" by Chi-Kuan Ho, Yu-Ling Huang and Chieh-Chih Chen

Some of the more impressive research on mangosteen involve leukemia:


  • "We examined the effects of six xanthones from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, on the cell growth inhibition of human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones displayed growth inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin showed complete inhibition at 10 microM through the induction of apoptosis."
    "Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines," by Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, Ohguchi K, Ito T, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y.

More mangosteen scientific studies can be found at:

One of the nice things about mangosteen is not only that it tastes good, but is also anti-diarrheal, meaning you are not likely to get diarrhea from drinking too much Mangosteen.

Here is how to get toally unbiased information about Mangosteen (from Dr. Duke):

This is the world famous Dr. Duke's Agricultural Research Service:

1) Click on this website:
2) Click on Chemicals and activities,
3) Select 'Common Name' then type in 'mangosteen' in the search box,
4) Select 'Print chemical activities after chemicals' then Submit Query. Read all the way down the page.


Important Comments

Important Warning: Due to the fact that many cancer patients have liver damage, frequently due to chemotherapy, and due to the fact that high doses of this product may, in rare cases, contribute to liver damage; doses of this product should not exceed 3 or 4 ounces a day. Those who already have liver damage should avoid this product.

An alternative cancer treatment should be a complete treatment protocol. Do NOT forget to study the complete treatment protocol for Stage I, II and III cancer patients and the complete treatment protocol for Stage IV cancer patients:
Treatment For Stage I, II and III Cancer Patients
Treatment For Stage IV Cancer Patients


Site Articles and Information
Mangosteen Research Superb Site of Information about Mangosteen
Dr. Ray Sahelian Impressive list of scientific studies
Mangosteen Juice Another list of scientic studies
Mangosteen MD Site with some good information


MANGOSTEEN (Garcinia mangostana)
One of the Super Healthy Exotic Fruits

The Mangosteen Fruit from Southwest Asia

The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana in Latin) plant is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. It was first discovered in Burma and Siam (now known as Thailand). The tree grows from 7 to 25 meters tall. This exotic edible Mangosteen fruit is a deep reddish purple when ripe. In Asia, the Mangosteen fruit is known as the "Queen of Fruits".

The Mangosteen tree requires a warm, very humid, equatorial climate all year round. Many people have tried to grow Garcinia mangostana in warm places such as California and Florida or in special greenhouses outside South East Asia, but they experienced little success because of the different environmental factors. The Mangosteen tree requires abundant moisture and only grows well in a tropical environment.

The Mangosteen fruit grown in Thailand is harvested in the season of optimum ripeness for maximum efficacy. The xanthone rich pericarp (the outer rind) is then separated from the pulp and freeze-dried.

The outer shell or rind of the Mangosteen fruit (called the pericarp) is rather hard, typically 4 to 6 centimeters in diameter, resembling a spherical, reddish-black, cartoon-style bomb. By cutting through the shell, one finds a very pale and fleshy fruit 3 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Depending on its size and ripeness, there may or may not be pits in the segments of the fruit. The number of fruit pods is directly related to the number of petals on the bottom of the shell. Commonly, the average Mangosteen will have 5 fruit pods.

The shell of the Mangosteen fruit looks tough and hard, but is easy to open. Care must be taken when opening the fruit, as the reddish-black husk outside produces a purplish, inky juice that stains fabric and can be almost impossible to remove (the reason why they are banned from some hotels in countries where they are available). To open a Mangosteen, the shell is usually broken apart, not cut. Holding the fruit in both hands, press it gently (thumbs on one side, the other fingers on the other) until the shell cracks. It is then very easy to pull the halves apart along the crack and remove the fruit without staining.

One of the most-praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most-esteemed fruit in the family Guttiferae, the Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana in Latin) is almost universally known or heard of by this name. But there are numerous variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking people the fruit is called mangostan; to the French it is mangostanier, mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese it is mangostao, mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese it is mang cut; in Malaya it may be referred to in any of these languages or by the local terms mesetor, semetah, or sementah; and in the Philippines it is mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago of Malaysia, there are many different spellings of names for Mangosteen similar to most of those mentioned above.

Health Benefits of Mangosteen Fruit (Garcinia mangostana)

Traditional Medicinal Uses:

For hundreds of years, the people of Southeast Asia have used the Mangosteen, especially the rind (called the pericarp, to ward off and treat infections, reduce pain or control fever, and treat various other ailments.

Dried Mangosteen fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried pericarp (rind) is powdered and administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders.

The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet, and is applied externally as an astringent lotion. A portion of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion given as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and children.

Filipinos employ a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders.

In Malaya an infusion of the Mangosteen leaves, combined with unripe banana and a little benzoin, is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate female menstruation. A bark extract called amibiasine has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery.

Modern Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits:

The latest in scientific research shows Mangosteen contains a class of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds known as xanthones. Xanthones provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and thrombosis. Xanthones demonstrate particularly powerful antioxidant properties.

Xanthones are found in a limited number of rain forest plants, but nowhere are they found in greater abundance than in the rind of the Mangosteen fruit.

The medicinal properties of the Mangosteen fruit are derived mainly from its outer rind or peel, not from the fleshy inner part of the fruit. The rind, called the pericarp, is where powerful antioxidants are highly concentrated. The Mangosteen pericarp is about a half-centimeter thick and is green when unripe, then dark purple when ripe.

These unique antioxidants, known as Xanthones, have properties which help to heal cells damaged by free radicals, slow aging, and ward off degenerative diseases and physical and mental deterioration.

The rind of partially ripe Mangosteen fruit yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also beta-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones gartanin, beta-disoxygartanin, and normangostin.

According to research reported in professional journals such as Free Radical Research and the Journal of Pharmacology, these amazing Xanthones have a remarkablly beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. They are also naturally antibiotic, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. Xanthones are among the most powerful antioxidants to be found in nature.

Many of the other health benefits of Xanthones from Mangosteen pericarp can be expressed in terms of how they act against or are "anti" various serious ailments...
anti-fatigue, anti-obesity, anti-depression, anti-anxiety, anti-vertigo (dizziness), anti-Alzheimerís, anti-Parkinsonism (Parkinson's Disease), anti-allergenic, anti-seborrheic (skin disease), anti-glaucoma (eye disease), anti-pyretic (anti-fever), anti-diarrhea, anti-periodontic (gum disease), anti-pain (such as dental pain), anti-neuralgia (nerve pain), anti-arthritis, anti-inflammatory (act as cox-2 inhibitors like the pharmaceutical drugs Vioxx(tm) and Celebrex(tm), but without the deadly side-effects), and anti-ulcer (such as ulcers of the stomach, mouth, small bowel, or large bowel).

Some of the Xanthones in the Mangosteen pericarp have powerful anti-inflammatory properties which may be of interest to those who suffer the pain of sciatica and peripheray neuropathy, which cannot be effectively controlled by drug treatments. The amount of Mangosteen consumed per day may need to be increased by two or three times to support pain relief through its anti-inflammatory and cox-2 inhibitor effects.

Mangosteen fruit also shows vasorelaxant properties (causing dilation of blood vessels and increased blood flow).

With Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. A) bacteria, Mangosteen has shown inhibitory action against these harmful bacteria organisms. In addition to its antibacterial properties, Mangosteen fruit also demonstrates strong antifungal properties. It is highly effective in boosting weak immune systems.

There are several compounds found in the Mangosteen that appear to make this fruit so active as a nutritional component for the body.

Research and References

NOTES: In the following citations of research studies, the medical term apoptosis refers to "cell death" after a cell has reproduced a certain number of times, then dies naturally (here, it refers to the death of cancer cells). Induction of apoptosis means "initiating apoptosis" of the cancer cells. HIV-1 refers to the AIDS virus. Low density lipoptrotein refers to "LDL cholesterol", the "bad cholesterol" that can form plaque in the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease or death by stroke or heart attack.

Jiang, D.J. e. al. Pharmacological effects of xanthones as cardiovascular protective agents. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 2004, 22(2):91-102

Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J. Ethnopharmacol, 2004 Jan:90(1):161-6

Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J. Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;55(8):1124-7

Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J. Nat Prod 1997 May; 60 (5):519-24

Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Mangosteen. Planta Med 1996 Aug;62(4):381-2

Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. Free radical Research. 1995 Aug.:23(2):175-84


********************** Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana)Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from rinds (skins) of mangosteen.

Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its rinds (skins) have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones.

Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the rinds (skins); alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, and methoxy-beta-mangostin in various human cancer cells.

These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-beta-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 muM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by alpha-mangostin and beta-Mangostin, and S arrest by gamma-mangostin. alpha-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs.

Mangosteen tests

It is very important to note that all the tests on Mangosteen found the most active Anti-cancer ingredient xanthone in the Rind or Skin. Some resellers of Mangosteen Juice or powders may focus on the fruit extract, which has a poorer concentration of xanthones. The addition of refined sugar in many Mangosteen juices reverse the effectiveness of xanthones on the cancer cells, as cancer thrives on refined sugar products. (glucose dependency). If you choose this treatment, source only the trusted suppliers of Mangosteen Supplements, or locate a supplier of this fruit in a tropical / subtropical region or Country.

How to prepare Mangosteen Rind (Skin) at home.

Prepare Mangosteen, by removing all fruit, and keeping only the rind/skin. These are very thick and are a dark red/ crimson color. Cut the mangosteen rind into very thin slices (2mm thick). Use a dehydrator or sun dry the skin. Store in airtight bottles.

Simmer a handful of Mangosteen Skins in 1 litre of water, do not boil. Simmer for 20 minutes. Strain and refrigerate, or add green tea and drink warm. Make fresh 'Mangosteen' tea in this manner and consume twice a day for 60 days. Combine with a Bruess Juice Diet for an extra powerful anticancer treatment

Study 1: 8/2003
Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. Journal of Natural Products. 2003 August;66(8):1124-7 The study determined the anti-cancer activity of six xanthones extracted from the rinds (skins) of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). The in-vitro tests were carried out on human leukemia cells. The researchers found that all tested xanthones inhibited the growth of the cancer cells. The xanthone with the strongest inhibitory effect was alpha-mangostin.

Study 2: 1/2004
Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. Journal of Ethnopharmacoly. 2004 January;90(1):161-6 The aim of this study was to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of a methanol extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) rinds (skins). The in-vitro test was carried out on human breast cancer cells, subject to different concentrations of the mangosteen extract. The researchers found dose-dependent inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. The extract also caused apoptosis on breast cancer cells and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species. The study concluded that the methanol extract from the rinds (skins) of mangosteen has potential for cancer chemoprevention.

Study 3: 3/2006
Antioxidant xanthones from the rinds (skins) of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2077-82. The aim of this study was to identify phytochemicals in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with anti-cancer activity. The researchers identified 14 xanthones, of which two were for the first time identified: 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G and mangostingone. The other xanthones were cudraxanthone G, 8-deoxygartanin, garcimangosone B, garcinone D, garcinone E, gartanin, 1-isomangostin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, mangostinone, smeathxanthone A and tovophyllin A. The phytochemicals with the strongest antioxidant activity were 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G, gartanin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin and smeathxanthone A. Alpha-mangostin inhibited preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay following treatment with a carcinogen.

It's not just about killing cancer....

But also about ending the causes of cancer
so it is no longer needed by the body.
The body expels disease when properly nourished.

Alternative web sites often are lost, are made illegal in the current political climate.

Because of the intrinsic value of this information for the reader, we at BSI, in addition to providing a link to the reference, also reprint it here for safe keeping. We kindly invite the author to contact us.

It appears obvious in many cancer-related publications, the author may be leery of liability. As such one must often read-between-the-lines, to understand what is revealed there. 

"Everything is backwards; everything is upside down. Doctors destroy health, lawyers destroy justice, universities destroy knowledge, governments destroy freedom, and the major media destroy information." ~ Michael Ellner

"Anti-dandruf shampoos cause dandruf and scalp disorders. Weight loss foods and drugs cause weight gain. Prescription drugs cause disease. Health insurance destroys health. Television and advertising kill individuality and inspiration." ~ I Wayan Nyepih




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