Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 2447-54-3
PubChem CID 5154
Mol. mass 332.09
Sanguinarine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of
It is extracted from some plants, including bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis),
Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), Chelodine (Chelidonium majus), and Plume poppy (Macleaya cordata).
It is also found in the root, stem and leaves of the opium poppy but not in
Sanguinarine is a toxin that kills animal cells through its action on the Na+-K+-ATPase transmembrane
protein. Epidemic dropsy is a disease that results from ingesting (too
If applied to the skin, sanguinarine kills cells and can destroy (diseased)
tissue. In turn, the bleeding wound may produce a scab, called an Eschar. For
this reason, sanguinarine is termed an escharotic.
In plants, sanguinarine is synthesized from dihydrosanguinarine through the
action of Dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (EC 184.108.40.206).
* Berberine; a plant based compound with similar chemical classification as
1. ^ Alfredo C. Santos, Pacifica Adkilen (July 1932). "The Alkaloids of Argemon
Mexicana". Journal of the American Chemical Society 54, No. 7: 2923–2924.
2. ^ Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain binding by sanguinarine Barry J. R. Pitts, Laurence R.
Meyerson, Ph. D, Drug Development Research, Volume 1, Issue 1.
3. ^ Das M, Khanna SK (May 1997). "Clinicoepidemiological, toxicological, and safety evaluation studies on argemone oil". Critical reviews in toxicology 27 (3): 273–97. doi:10.3109/10408449709089896. PMID 9189656.
4. ^ Chelirubine, Macarpine, and Sanguinarine Biosynthesis International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Recommendations on Biochemical & Organic Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc., web interface
 Additional references
* D. Walterova, J. Ulrichova, I. Valka, J. Vicar, C. Vavreckova, E.
Taborska, R.J. Harjrader, D.L. Meyer, H. Cerna and V. Simanek(1996) Benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids sanguinarine and
chelerythrine: biological activities and dental care applications, Acta Univ. Palacky Olomouc
Fac. Med. 139 (1995), pp. 7–16.
* Zdarilova et al., A. Zdarilova, J. Malikova, Z. Dvorak, J. Ulrichova and V. Simanek,2006, Quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids sanguinarine and
chelerythrine. In vitro and in vivo effects, Chemicke Listy 100 (2006), pp. 30–41.
* Das M. and Khanna S.K.(1997) Clinicoepidemiological, toxicological, and safety evaluation studies on argemone oil,
Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 27 pp. 273–297.
* Mukul Das, Kishore Babu, Naveen P. Reddy and Lalit M. Srivastava.(2005) Oxidative damage of plasma proteins and lipids in epidemic dropsy patients: Alterations in antioxidant status. Biochimica et Biophysica
Acta- General Subjects, Vol 1722, Issue 2, Pg 209-217
* A. Zdařilová, R. Vrzal, M. Rypka, J. Ulrichová and Z. Dvořák(2006)Investigation of sanguinarine and chelerythrine effects on CYP1A1 expression and activity in human hepatoma cells Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol 44(2) , Pg 242-249
* Manu Lopus and Dulal Panda (2006) The benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine perturbs microtubule assembly dynamics through tubulin binding. A possible mechanism for its antiproliferative activity. FEBS J. Vol 273, Issue 10, Pg 2139-2150.
* Differential Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Response of Sanguinarine for Cancer Cells versus Normal Cells Nihal Ahmad, Sanjay Gupta, Mirza M.
Husain, Kaisa M. Heiskanen and Hasan Mukhtar, Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 6 (April 2000), pp. 1524-1528.
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