Among all elements found in the plants, alkaloids are the most powerful as
well as very effective. Hence, it is little surprising that the alkaloids have
been researched and examined the most by the modern day scientists. The strength
or effectiveness of the alkaloids commonly includes everything or all substances
that are poisonous in the plants. Therefore, it would be right to state that the
exploits of any kind of alkaloids on the human body is naturally traumatic and
Alkaloids are the natural compounds found in all vegetables that include
nitrogen and are considered to be disintegration of substances that comprise proteins.
They are exuded in particular cells or tubes and can be of great use in
safeguard against normal enemies as they have a bitter flavor. Generally,
alkaloids are amalgams that do not have any scent and boast of a distinctive
outcome on the animals’ body mechanism or function. Owing to these properties,
alkaloids have significant therapeutic value and form the ingredients of many
important medicines. The alkaloids also comprise strong vegetable toxics and
sedatives. Substances like caffeine
and theobromine that are closely associated with natural purine (substance that
can be converted to uric acid in the body) compounds are normally categorized as
Here are a few things to remember. First and foremost, nearly all herbs
enclose some or other kind of alkaloids in their structures. This includes even
those plants that are considered to be perfectly safe. Here it is the case of
the complete plant being more than simply the total of all its parts. Second,
medications that contain significant levels of alkaloids have a direct toxic
impact and hence when anyone takes these drugs in excess they are bound to lead
to symptoms like vomiting,
diarrhea or affect
the central nervous system. Since plant alkaloids are natural, they often
produce menacing effects of the remedies. On the other hand, synthetic alkaloids
are designed such that they do not prove harmful beyond a limit. However, many
herbalists are of the opinion that the instant annoyance caused by the
medications containing plant alkaloids are an important and necessary part of
the stimulating action required for healing from any disorder.
All said and done, all herbal medicine practitioners need to be doubly
careful while administering any remedy with high content of alkaloids. Alkaloids
have a significant characteristic and that is it is soluble in water
and also dissipates in alcohol. Since the majority of the conventional herbal
remedies like infusions and decoctions were aqueous in nature, it may well be
imagined that they had comparatively low alkaloid content. In contrast, present
day herbal practitioners, especially in Britain mostly use alcohol or water
tinctures and these contain relatively high percentage of alkaloids. Since the
infusions prepared by the herbal practitioners in Britain have levels of
alkaloid, these alcoholic
infusions are definitely more powerful than the conventional herbal remedies.
Hence it is advisable to start using herbal remedies in small quantities and in
aqueous preparations. It definitely makes a lot of sense.
Although the usage of herbal remedies in aqueous preparations and in measured
quantities is of great significance, it is clear that the exploit as well as
effects of a tincture prepared in alcohol will be different from the herb’s
infusion variety. In fact, traditionally, people have been using aqueous herbal
tincture preparations, while modern day remedies mostly comprise alcoholic
infusions of herbs. Modern day medical expertise is more focused on the
alcoholic infusions prepared from herbs rather than the aqueous tinctures and
hence it is obvious that the results of the two preparations are bound to be
different often leading to perplexity.
Over the years, many people have tried to define alkaloid in different forms
chemically, but none has been satisfactory. The word alkaloid has been initially
drawn from the word ‘vegetable alkali’ and was used to express the baseness
or alkalinity of a number of initial alkaloidal segregations. Generally
speaking, alkaloids comprise almost all alkaline nitrogenous materials having
distinct physiological consequences. All said and done, colchicine and ricinine
are not alkaline in nature, while mescaline, ephedrine and muscarine do not
enclose nitrogen. This is despite the fact that alkaloids are conventionally
known to be delivered from higher plants, and even animals as well as lower
organisms are identified as alkaloid producers. Normally, the majority of the
alkaloids are heterocyclic (a compound containing a closed ring of atoms of
which at least one is not a carbon atom) in nature. But there are others like
mescaline, ephedrine and hordenine that are non-cyclic and these are also often
known as ‘protoalkaloids’.
Besides, being venomous - the primary function of the alkaloids in all
vegetation appears to be to protect them from grazing animals and herbivorous
insects - so far no one has taken the effort to recapitulate the exploits of
alkaloids. In fact, each variety of alkaloid has its own distinct quality and
this is yet to be summarized by the herbalists. While there is no brief account
available of the alkaloids’ actions, record regarding the variety and
classification of the alkaloids is obtainable and one can have a fair idea
concerning them. There are numerous separate examples of alkaloids and their
actions and they generally offer a picture of the substances being poisonous and
significantly vigorous. However, these examples do not do justice to the
alkaloids as more often than not they are an exaggerated description and paint
the alkaloids as infamous substances.
Hence, the best way to know alkaloids is to study them in groups along with
ordinary biosynthetic (a synthetic processes that rely on biological reactions
in order to manufacture a product) origins. In fact, there are several
supplementary clusters, but these are the more noteworthy substances. It is
found that many varieties of alkaloids have specific effects on the central
nervous system, especially on the synapses (the gaps between nerve cells) in the
conduits of the nervous system. The universal solubility of alkaloids in lipids
is pertinent in this type of exploits.
Alkaloids are basically derived from the amino acid called ornithine.
This cluster of amino acid comprises the tropane alkaloids, atropine, hyoscine
and hyoscyamine from the family of nightshade. For instance, the nightshade
family includes henbane,
(thornapple), and bittersweet.
Acting as a cluster these alkaloids impede the activities of parasympathetic
nerve (originates in the lower part of the spinal
cord and brain stem, stimulates digestive secretions, opposes physiological
effects of the sympathetic nervous system, constricts the pupils; slows the
heart, dilates blood vessels). Incidentally, the pyrrolidine alkaloids also comprise the ‘truth
medication’ scopolamine (also known as hyoscine) and cocaine.
Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids
Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids are a mono carbon hoop including one
nitrogen atom and this group of alkaloids comprises numerous species of toxic
plants that include venomous hemlock (Conium maculatum), tobacco
(Nicotiana tobacum) and lobelia.
Incidentally, while tobacco is a member of the nightshade family, scientifically
known as Solanaceae, poison hemlock is a member of the carrot
family or Apiaceae. Coniine, a single ring compound produced in the plant from
octanoic acid is a toxic alkaloid present in poison hemlock that is responsible
for paralysis, asphyxia (suffocation) and ultimately death. According to
history, legendary Greek philosopher, considered by his rulers as an enemy of
the people, was provided with an extract of the poisonous hemlock in 399 B.C.
and, thus, condemned to death through poisoning. Water hemlock or Cicuta
douglasii, which is closely linked with poisonous hemlock, includes cicutoxin -
a terpenoid resin.
Incidentally, water hemlock is one of the most convulsive or most aggressively
lethal indigenous plants found in North America. Ironically, this plant is often
mistaken for a parsnip
root and in this case the chemicals
present in the plant effect the central nervous system directly and most often
leads to death.
Pyrrolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids
Pyrrolizidine and quinolizidine are a complicated group. Incidentally, this
group of alkaloids has always proved to be of immense pharmacological interest
for researchers and clinical examiners. All these alkaloids are known to have
lethal features and may prove to be fatal. While pyrrolizidine is obtained from
ornithine and is known to be injurious for the liver, quinolizidine is obtained
from amino acid called lysine.
Pyrrolizidine is generally found in ragworts, which is a problem for the
grazing animals, comfrey,
borage and coltsfoot.
In the last instance, the evidence for toxicity is smaller and still unclear.
Indole alkaloids comprise serotonin chemically know as 5-hydroxyltryptamine
or 5-HT and others of their kind. These comprise the anesthetizing alkaloids of
flower, ophthalmic alkaloids associated with the physostigmine derived from
the calabar bean
as well as the uterine tonics
such as ergotamine. This variety of alkaloids also comprises the Indian
snakeroot or the Rauwolfia serpentaria that consist of reserpine. It may be
mentioned here that reserpine contains potent hypotensive and when isolated from
the entire plant possess depressive consequences. Among the numerous central
nervous stimulants such as strychnine, psilocybin and johimbine, indole
alkaloids comprise indole carbon-nitrogen loop. Indole carbon-nitrogen ring is
also present in the fungal alkaloids ergine and psilocybin, the neurotransmitter
serotonin as well as the mind jerking medication LSD. Researches have shown that
these alkaloids may often impede, obstruct or even contend with the action of
serotonin in the brain.
Interestingly, one of the strange aspects of alkaloids that occur naturally
in the fungi includes ergot, scientifically known as Claviceps purpurea, which
is basically a rust fungus
that contaminates grains.
Incidentally, the alkaloid of ergot is also known as ergine or d-lysergic acid
amide. It is popularly known as the natural LSD. Synthetic LSD or d-lysergic
acid diethylamide is more powerful than the natural LSD. Two genus of Mexican
morning glory vines also contain natural LSD and these vines are consumed by the
native Indians there during significant therapeutic as well as religious
It may be mentioned here that during the Middle Ages, hundreds and thousands
of people in Europe were badly affected by a malady known as ergotism. The main
symptoms of this disease
included festering extremities, spasms as well as insanity. These people
suffered from the malady as they consumed bread prepared from rye that was
infected with fungus enclosing ergine and various other powerful vasoconstrictor
alkaloids that distressed the blood vessels. Ergotism was also known as ‘St
Anthony’s Fire’ and was a deadly malady dreaded by all. Incidentally, the
Mecivan peyote cactus or ‘Lophopora williamsii as well as San Pedro cactus or
‘Trichocereus pachanoi’ found in South America contain a different
hallucinogenic alkaloid known as mescaline. Incidentally, this variety of
alkaloid - mescaline - has a chemical arrangement that is extremely comparable
to the brain neurotransmitter dopamine.
Bufotenine, another enthralling indole alkaloid is widely present in Yopo or
Parica or ‘Anadenanthera peregrina’ seeds. The Yopa is a South American
leguminous tree found in the Orinoco River basin and is different from the
leguminous species Andenanthera. Native Indians in the Orinoco River basin
collect the Yopo seeds, make their powder and use them as a hallucinogenic
snuff. Bufotenine is also of the 5-hudroxyldimethyltryptamine or 5-HT variety
and is generally obtained from the indole alkaloid called tryptamine. In fact,
tryptamine is again derived from the indispensable amino acid called tryptophan.
Talking about tryptophan, it comprises one of the eight necessary nutritional
amino acids for the human beings and is also extensively found in the animal
kingdom. Significantly, tryptophan cannot be synthesized by the humans. Another
interesting fact is that bufotenine is also found in the skin discharges of
particular toads of the Bufo species and this offers an explanation regarding
the practice of licking toads by some people.
Reserpine, an indole alkaloid, is obtained from the roots of a shrub known as
snakeroot or ‘Rauvolfia serpentina’ commonly found in India. Reserpine
belongs to the dogbane family of ‘Apocynacear and the species are also often
spelled as ‘Rauwolfia’. As far as the chemical properties of reserpine is
concerned, it is alike serotonin and has been often used to cease schizophrenia-like
indications from LSD as well as the brain reducing activities in the case of
patients suffering from the schizophrenic malady. As mentioned earlier, though
snakeroot is commonly found in India, other genus of Rauvolfia from other
tropical regions of the globe also forms probable sources of this variety of
alkaloid (reserpine). A highly venomous alkaloid known as strychnine is yet
another indole alkaloid that is obtained from the seeds of Strychnos
nux-vomica. Strychnos nux-vomica is a petite tree found in Asia and belongs
to the logania family or the ‘Loganiaceae’. It is interesting to note that
the Amazonian Indian cover their bow gun nips with a poisonous extract from the
bark and stems of a Strychnos genus known as curare. A highly poisonous extract
from the venomous vine Chondodendron tomentosum, which is scientifically known
as ‘Menispermaceae’, and called isoquinoline is present in curare and this
makes the bow guns of the Amazonian Indians fatal.
Vinblastine and vincristine are two more varieties of indole alkaloids that
are found in the Madagascar
periwinkle. These varieties also known as ‘Catharanthus roseus’ are
commonly cultivated in the area as a bedding plant belonging to the dogbane
family or the ‘Apocynaceae’. Commonly known as spindle poisonous, these
alkaloids have proved to be very effective in the treatment of chemotherapy
for patients suffering from leukemia
as well as the Hodgkin’s
disease that refers to the ‘lymph node and spleen cancer’.
Researches have established that this variety of alkaloids helps in terminating
or ‘depolymerization’ of protein microtubules that form the mitotic spindle
in cell division. This process efficiently helps in terminating the tumor cells
from separating or dividing and, henceforth, resulting to reduction of cancer.
It may be noted here that before the periwinkle alkaloids were used by medical
practitioners as a treatment there was nearly no hope for relief or survival for
patients suffering from Hodgkin's malady. However, researches have established
that since the medicos have started utilizing this alkaloid for treating the
disease, there is 90 per cent possibility of survival for patients suffering
from Hodgkin's disease.
Hence, this is an ideal example to convince people to conserve the varied
flora (vegetation) and fauna in natural ecosystems for we are yet to learn about
the medicinal benefits of the plant kingdom to cure the various ailments
plaguing the humans. Who knows which species found in the tropical or other
geological regions may help mankind to cure the dreaded diseases confronted by
the humans? It is possible that the remedies to our sufferings may be discovered
in the numerous species found in the tropical rain forests or other natural
environments. Deviating from the point, other spindle poisonous used by medical
practitioners in cancer chemotherapy
comprise podophyllotoxin. Podophyllotoxin is an anti-neoplastic glucoside
obtained from rhizomes of may
apple, scientifically known as ‘Podophyllum peltatum’. ‘Podophyllum
peltatum’ belongs to the barberry
family or ‘Berberidaceae’ and colchicines – an amine alkaloid from the
corms of autumn
crocus (Colchicum autumnale). It may be mentioned here that the ‘Colchicum
autumnale’ belongs to the lily
family, which is botanically also known as ‘Lilaceae’.
Quinoline alkaloids include twofold carbon rings comprising one nitrogen atom
(N) and they enclose quinine from the bark
of Cinchona ledgeriana. Incidentally, Cinchona ledgeriana is a South
American tree in the coffee
family (Rubiaceae). The alkaloid quinine is poisonous to Plasmodium vivax and
three supplementary classes, including the single-celled organisms or protozoans
that cause malaria.
The microbes attack the red blood cells where they multiply, finally escaping
from the split cells. The ailment is differentiated by interludes of high
temperature and chills, linked with the concurrent break of red blood cells.
Malaria is certainly one of the most widespread ailments all over the humid
expanses of the globe, and it is spread through the bite or blood meal of the
female Anopheles mosquito.
It may be mentioned here that during the 1600s, Spanish Jesuits in Lima,
Peru, came to know that bark drag outs from a neighboring tree called "quina"
(scientifically known as the C. officinalis) had the capability to heal malaria.
Henceforth, these Spanish Jesuits in Peru successfully used this extract on
Countess Chinchon. A report published by O. Tippo and W.L. Stern in Humanistic
Botany in 1977 says that the genus was named by Linnaeus in admiration of the
countess, but spelled it Cinchona rather than "Chinchona.".
Although many synthetic anti-malarial drugs such as atabrine, chloroquine and
primaquine have been developed, currently, quinine trees are grown in
plantations. Some species of plasmodium are opposed to many of the synthetic
quinine analogues and hence natural quinine is still used even to this day. In
fact, there are people who still take prophylactic doses of bitter quinine water
(tonic) in the evenings, habitually mixed with vodka or gin.
Isoquinoline alkaloids are associated with quinoline alkaloids and constitute
an important division of the alkaloid family. Isoquinoline alkaloids can be
divided into several sub-classes and among others, comprise elements such as
simple isoquinolines, benzylisoquinolines, phthalideisoquinolines, protopines,
morphine alkaloids, protoberberines as well as ipecac alkaloids.
For instance simple isoquinolines are the alkaloids of mescaline cactus or
Lopophora willamsii such as mescaline, while benzylisoquinolines are antecedents
of many alkaloids that comprise opium
poppy’s papaverine. On the other hand, phthalideisoquinolines encompass
all narcotine, protopines are restricted to the poppy family comprising
protopine and protoberberines include berberine, hydrastine, canadine among
others. Protoberberines are derived from Berberis ssp., as well as golden
seal. Morphine alkaloids include morphine, codeine and thebaine all from the
opium poppy family, whereas ipecac
alkaloids comprise emetic alkaloid emetine obtained from ipecacuanha.
Isoquinoline alkaloids comprise two-fold carbon loop that contains one
nitrogen atom (N). This form of alkaloid comprises the narcotic alkaloids
generally present in particular members of the poppy family or Papaveraceae like
the opium poppy or Papaver somniferum. In fact, when we use the term narcotic,
it is generally points to the pain-relieving
and sleep-inducing qualities of these intensely addictive alkaloids that include
substances like morphine, codeine and thebaine. Incidentally, morphine has
derived its name from the Greek God of sleep Morpheus, while the particular
soubriquet of the opium poppy or Somniferum literally translated to Latin means
All these powerful alkaloids are derived from the milk-like latex juice of
ripened seed container of the opium poppy. The procedure of collecting the sap
is simple. The unrefined opium juice trickles from newly cuts into the pericarp
of the seed containers and when it comes in contact with the air, the juice is
oxidized and takes a solid form turning black in color. Later, morphine is
chemically reacted upon to form diacetylmorphine which is popularly called
heroin. Interestingly, the poppy seed used on bagels and rolls are also derived
from the opium poppies and seldom have any narcotic effect on the people having
them during the coffee breaks. However, these can also activate a positive reaction in very responsive urine examinations for drugs. Besides Papaver, opiate alkaloids that are found in the
nature too are found in the Argemone and Dicentra genera. It is an irony that
while the opium poppy have led to sufferings and destructions in the lives of
people addicted to the drug and their family members, these alkaloids have
provided immense relieve to people suffering from pain throughout the ages.
Although Demerol is a very powerful synthetic opiate, there are many others like
natural morphine which is one of the best pain relievers available anywhere till
A major source of a powerful isoquinoline alkaloid utilized in curing deadly
poisons is Chondodendron tomentosum, a member of the Menispermaceae family,
which is an extract from the barks and stem of a vine indigenous to South
America. Indians in the Amazon area use this sticky derivative to cover the
venomous nips of their blowguns - their amour against enemies as well as for
hunting. Alkaloid D-tubocurarine possess a special healing power as it actively
obstructs the acetylcholine receptor spots at the neuromuscular intersections
enabling muscles to unwind as well as protect them from paralysis. This variety
of alkaloid is also effective in relaxing as well as preventing the paralysis of
the muscles in the respiratory tract as well as the heart. Significantly, D-tubocurarine
alkaloids have been extensively used to unwind the muscles of the heart during
open heart surgeries. In addition, this variety of alkaloid has also been used
by medicos in curing spastic or convulsive paralysis of tetanus venom that
causes unmanageable retrenchment of muscle all over the body.
Purine alkaloids normally include caffeine,
theophylline, theobromine and aminophyline which are obtained from cocoa,
tea and coffee.
These substances are collectively named xanthines as they are obtained from the
purine nucleotides adenine and guanine. They are medicinally beneficial as they
are active in extending the effectual life of a number of hormones such as adrenaline.
By the by, purine alkaloids contain a molecular arrangement amazingly
analogous to the nitrogenous purine base adenine that is generally present in DNA,
RNA and ATP. Purine alkaloids comprise a two-fold carbon sphere containing
four nitrogen atoms (N). Predominantly among the purine alkaloids are moderate
invigorators like coffee or Coffea Arabica in the coffee species or Rubiaceae. Tea
or Camellia sinensis in the tea family or Theaceae, yerba mate or Ilex
paraguariensis a member of the holly species or Aquifoliaeae, guarana
or Paullinia cupana in the soapberry species or Sapindaceae and cola or Cola
nitida in the chocolate species scientifically known as Sterculiaceae.
Incidentally, the most important origin of theobromine is from the seeds or
beans of cacao
scientifically known as Theobroma cacao. In fact, Theobroma cacao is one more
member of the chocolate family that is scientifically called Sterculiaceae.
By the way, although coffee is indigenous in the mountainous regions of
Ethiopia, the shrub or small tree is now commercially cultivated all over the
world - especially in the tropical regions. Mocha in Yemen was an ancient hub of
coffee trade. It was initially roasted and consumed as a beverage in Arabia and
by 1600, it became popular in England and was extensively served during
political deliberations and at meeting places. Initially, Sri Lanka or Ceylon
was the primary source of coffee import for England. However, following a
serious fungal infection or disease (Hemileia vastatrix) to the coffee plant in
the island nation that destroyed the cultivation in 1869, England turned to
Ceylon tea which till date happens to be the main brewed beverage of the nation.
However, currently more than half of the world’s coffee output comes not
from Sri Lanka, but from South American nations such as Brazil and Colombia.
Well, to describe coffee fruits - they are plump berries, which comprise two
seed that are stuffed together in such a manner that the inner or adjoining
sides of each of them are compressed. The coffee seeds also known as coffee
beans are isolated from the coffee cherries or berries and then roasted to
prepare the coffee beverage. Coffee beverage is consumed in various forms and
one of them is espresso coffee. In fact, espresso coffee is generally prepared
by passing steam through deeply roasted or dark-roast coffee beans.
By removing caffeine from coffee beans or seeds one can prepare decaffeinated
coffee. This can be done through either water extraction or solvent extraction
of the coffee beans. Normally, in pure form, the coffee beverage is bitter to
taste. Incidentally, there are a variety of coffee that comprise contaminants
like ground chicory
roots or Cichorium intybus that actually lessen the unpleasantness in the
beverage and enhance its essence. In the United States, chicory, which belongs
to the vast sunflower
species that is scientifically known as Asteraceae, is generally found along the
roadsides and is common elsewhere too. Here is an interesting fact. Substitutes
of coffee like the Postum are also prepared from the molasses as well as the
roasted muesli grains like wheat, barley
as well as rye.
Generally speaking, terpenoid alkaloids are an assortment of amalgams or
compounds that are obtained biosynthetically through different procedures that
produce a number of group of terpenes like sesquiterpenoids, montoterpenoids,
diterpenoids as well as steroids. Incidentally, this variety of alkaloids is
found in an irregular manner in the plant kingdom. For instance, the
monoterpenoid alkaloids like gentianine are usually found in the plant family
Gentianaceae. Sesquiterpenoids, for instance, dendrobine are generally found in
the Orchidaceae or cassinine in the Celastraceae, diterpenoids like aconitine
are found in the Ranunculaceae family and steroidal alkaloids. Similarly,
buxamine is found in discrete plant families like Buxaceae, protoverine is
located in the Liliacea and solanidine in the Solanaceae. Interestingly, a
number of terpenoid alkaloids also display anti-feedant and anti-fungal
features. And most importantly, the fascinating alkaloids in this sub-group are
present in the genus Veratrum and they are normally beneficial for curing hypertension
(high blood pressure), neuralgia
as well as rheumatism.
Articles about Temu Lawak Temulawak rhizome contains xanthorrhizol, germakren, allo-aromadendren, tricyclin, and isofurogermakren. Curcumoid and xanthorrizol are the most active component.
39 Surprising Benefits Of Ginger For Skin And Health Ginger is considered the ‘chest of medicine’ in Ayurveda due to its various health benefits. Its powerful therapeutic and preventive effects make it usable in the treatment of various ailments.
Galangal. Galangal is a generic name that often describes several varieties of the ginger root families Zingiberaceae, haling from Southeast Asia, all of which grow in Indonesia. Most forms of ginger posses anti-cancer qualities, to varying degrees and qualifications.
Alkaloids. Alkaloids have significant therapeutic value and form the ingredients of many important medicines. The alkaloids also comprise strong vegetable toxics and sedatives. Substances like caffeine and theobromine that are closely associated with natural purine (substance that can be converted to uric acid in the body) compounds are normally categorized as alkaloids.
Turmeric, Curcumin Naturally Block Cancer Cells. Curcumin has previously been found to reduce tumors by 81%, which also gives credence to the natural anti-cancer benefits of turmeric and curcumin intake.
Blood Root used in BSI Compounds. Some of the more important alkaloids present in bloodroot include sanguinarine, chelerythrine, and protopine have been isolated from roots and rhizomes of Sanguinaria canadensis. Berberine is also an important alkaloid present in bloodroot.
Bereberine Alkaloid in BSI Medicines. Berberine suppresses the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells including breast cancer, leukemia, melanoma, epidermoid carcinoma, hepatoma, pancreatic cancer, oral carcinoma, tongue carcinoma, glioblastoma, prostate carcinoma, gastric carcinoma. Animal studies have shown that berberine can suppress chemical-induced carcinogenesis, clastogenesis, tumor promotion, tumor invasion, prostate cancer, neuroblastoma, and leukemia. It is a radiosensitzer of tumor cells but not of normal cells.
Sanguinarine. If applied to the skin, sanguinarine kills cells and can destroy (diseased) tissue. In turn, the bleeding wound may produce a scab, called an Eschar. For this reason, sanguinarine is termed an escharotic.
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